Town planning, also commonly referred to as urban planning, is the process of effective land resource management. This process allows for the effective control of both new and existing developments, alongside allowing for strategy preparation to ensure the management of future requirements. Town planning regulation is subject to frequent change and is often molded in response to local needs.

The field is mainly concerned with the effective planning of settlements and communities, as the name suggests, though factors affecting conservation, financial, educational, transportation, and public health are also taken into consideration. Regulation of land development and use in accordance with these factors is generally thought to lead to sustainable, controlled growth, positive economic development, improved infrastructure, and an overall increase in quality of life.